Urinary tract infection
Certain sexual practices (such as anal sex without a condom)
Excessive alcohol intake
Injury to the perineum (the area between the scrotum and anus)
These factors may cause congestion of the prostate gland, which produces a breeding ground for bacteria.
Decreased urine stream
Pain with urination
Urinary hesitancy (delayed start of urination)
Low-grade or subtle symptoms may include:
Pain and burning with urination
Pain in the perineum or pelvic floor
Pain with bowel movement
Pain with ejaculation
Note: There may be no symptoms.
Enlarged, mildly tender prostate
Enlarged or tender lymph nodes in the groin area
Swelling and tenderness of the scrotum
Triple-void urine specimens may be collected for urinalysis and urine culture. Urine may be collected:
After a prostate massage by examiner
Other tests may include:
Treatment options for chronic prostatitis include a combination of medication, surgery, and lifestyle changes.
Most antibiotics do not get into the prostate tissue well. Often, the infection continues even after long periods of treatment. After antibiotic treatment has ended, it is common for symptoms to return.
Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man’s reproductive system. It wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.
The cause of prostate cancer is unknown. Some studies have shown a relationship between high dietary fat intake and increased testosterone levels.
There is no known association with an enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Prostate cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer in men of all ages and is the most common cause of death from cancer in men over age 75. Prostate cancer is rarely found in men younger than 40.
The appropriate treatment for prostate cancer is not clear. Treatment options vary based on the stage of the tumor. In the early stages, talk to your doctor about several options including surgery, radiation therapy, or, in older patients, monitoring the cancer without active treatment.
Prostate cancer that has spread may be treated with drugs to reduce testosterone levels, surgery to remove the testes, or chemotherapy.
Surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy can interfere with sexual desire or performance on either a temporary or permanent basis. Discuss your concerns with your health care provider.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a fungal infection of the lungs.
PCP is a pneumonia caused by the fungal organism Pneumocystis carinii (now renamed Pneumocystis jiroveci). This organism is common in the environment and does not cause illness in healthy people.
However, Pneumocystis carinii can cause a lung infection in in people with a weakened immune system due to any of the following conditions:
Chronic use of corticosteroids or other medications that affect the immune system
Solid organ or bone marrow transplant
PCP was a relatively rare infection before the AIDS epidemic. Before the use of preventive antibiotics for PCP, up to 70% of people in the U.S. with advanced AIDS would develop PCP.
Shortness of breath — especially with activity (exertion)
Usually on the tongue
May be on the inside of the cheeks
In females, occasionally on the genitals
Usually white or gray
May be red (called erythroplakia)
The symptoms of hairy leukoplakia are painless, fuzzy, white patches on the tongue.
Multiple sexual partners
Sexual partners who have multiple partners or who participate in high-risk sexual activities
Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage
Weakened immune system
Poor economic status (may not be able to afford regular Pap smears)
Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause
Periods become heavier and last longer than usual
Any bleeding after menopause
Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include:
Single swollen leg
Heavy bleeding from the vagina
Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina
Exams and Tests
If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the health care provider will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Tests may include:
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
Cryotherapy — freezes abnormal cells
Laser therapy — uses light to burn abnormal tissue
A hysterectomy (removal of the uterus but not the ovaries) is not often performed for cervical cancer that has not spread. It may be done in women who have repeated LEEP procedures. However, in more advanced disease, a radical hysterectomy may be performed. This type of hysterectomy removes the uterus and much of the surrounding tissues, including internal lymph nodes and upper part of the vagina. In the most extreme surgery, called a pelvic exenteration, all of the organs of the pelvis, including the bladder and rectum, are removed.
The stage of the disease
The age and general physical condition of the woman
Pre-cancer conditions are completely curable when followed up and treated properly. The chance of being alive in 5 years (5-year survival rate) for cancer that has spread to the inside of the cervix walls but not outside the cervix area is 92%.
The cancer may come back (recur) after treatment.
Women who have treatment to save the uterus have a high risk of the cancer coming back (recurrence).
Surgery and radiation can cause problems with sexual, bowel, and bladder function.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Are at least 20 years old and have never had a pelvic examination and Pap smear
Think your mother may have taken DES when she was pregnant with you
Have not had regular Pap smears (ask your health care provider how often you should have one performed)